Marron (Cherax tenuimanus) is a species of freshwater crayfish.
They are a promising species for aquaculture because of their:
- large size
- good feed conversion efficiency
- reproductive ability.
Marron are native to the south-western region of Western Australia. They were introduced to South Australia on Kangaroo Island in the 1960s. Most Marron farming still takes place on Kangaroo Island.
Other Marron production areas are:
- Eyre Peninsula
- Fleurieu Peninsula
- the south-east.
Marron are farmed in fresh water for commercial food production. Existing dams and bodies of water can be used for farming. This can make farming less expensive than for other species that need more complex growing systems. Marron is mostly farmed on private land. It is an industry that is readily available to South Australian primary producers.
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is the one of the highest value and production land-based species in the South Australian aquaculture industry. Farming for commercial food production began in the early 1990s.
Barramundi are well suited to aquaculture because they are:
- grows fast
- a premium table fish.
Barramundi diets consist of smaller fish and crustaceans. They reach approximately 1.5-3 kg in 1 year in ponds under optimal conditions.
Species such as Barramundi are found in:
- Indo-West Pacific Region
- eastern edge of the Persian Gulf to China
- Southern Japan
- Papua New Guinea
- northern Australia.
Species such as Barramundi farms are currently farmed for aquaculture in:
The majority of Barramundi farming use one of the following systems:
- fully enclosed tanks
- recirculating tanks
- flow-through tanks
Those can be altered to reproduce the environmental conditions that cause optimal growth in Barramundi.
The farming of Rainbow Trout (Salma trutta) and Brown Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) is a growing contributor to the land-based South Australian aquaculture industry.
Rainbow and Brown Trout are native to:
- western Asia.
Rainbow Trout are naturally distributed in North American coastal rivers that drain into the Pacific Ocean. They have been introduced to all continents except Antarctica. The first release of trout in South Australia occurred during the late 1870s.
Intensive trout farming is undertaken in raceways and ponds. Only Rainbow Trout is farmed for its commercial food production in Australia. Brown Trout and fry fingerlings are grown by hatcheries for stocking recreational fishing dams under Ministerial permit.
The common Yabby (Cherax destructor) is an Australian freshwater crayfish. Yabby farming for commercial food production in South Australia started in the early 1980s. Yabbies are well adapted to the seasonality of arid Australia.
Yabbies are well suited to aquaculture because they:
- grow rapidly
- have good feed conversion efficiency
- have high reproductive ability.
Yabbies are native to South Australia and are common in the State’s waterways.
Yabby farming has the highest production on Kangaroo Island.
Other areas of Yabby production are:
- Eyre Peninsula
- Fleurieu Peninsula
- the south-east
- the mid-north.
Yabbies are farmed in fresh water. Existing dams and bodies of water can be used for farming. This can make farming less expensive that other species that need more complex growing systems. Yabbies are mostly farmed on private land. It is an industry that is readily available to South Australian primary producers.
Murray Cod (Macculochella peelii peelii) are suited to intensive recirculation aquaculture.
They are very territorial fish and were thought to be too aggressive for aquaculture. Cod grown in tanks are far less competitive than those living in the wild. This makes them suitable for aquaculture and are farmed for commercial food production.
Murray Cod are found in the Murray-Darling river system in:
- south-eastern Queensland
- New South Wales
- South Australia.
Murray Cod production
Murray Cod adapt extremely well to recirculation systems. They become schooling fish when they are stocked at higher densities and cannot establish territories.