Chronology

Food baits

1947 - Early: agee jars and treacle tills baited with clensel or vanilla-ammonia; later 200 glass invaginated (McPhail) traps with orange rind extract/animonia in solution

1951 - 500 McPhail traps with ammonia-vanilla lure

1952 - Oil of angelica plant and seed tried for 2 years

1954 - Lure reverted to ammonia-vanilla

1962 — Protein hydrolysate—vanilla—ammonium chloride lure; use of supplementary traps around infested trees

1979 - Trial of protein 50% and added water 50% was not successful as a lure

1983 - Low salt protein autolysate replaced hydrolysate in the lure

Male lures and dry traps - Qfly

1957 - Test with anisyl acetone as a lure; invaginate glass traps with Staley’s protein bait No.7 and maldison

1960 - 449 Bateinan traps introduced with Willison’s lure on a 1/2 mile grid in metropolitan area

1962 - Unsuccessful test of ammonium carbonate-orange as a lure

1963 - 1/4 mile grid in metropolitan utilising 1290 traps

1964 — Change to cuelure maldison and alcohol as the attractant; 3.5cc on the wick; trap numbers increased to 1382

1965 - Trap density increased to 40 per square mile over entire metropolitan area (1440); also at Pt. Augusta (30) and Pt. Pirie (38)

1973 - 1875 traps being serviced

1974 - Density of traps increased to 50 per square mile

1976 - Pt. Pirie grid extended to 71 traps; monitoring of Riverland area first discussed

1979 - Steiner trap; Queensland modification replaced the Bateman trap using 5cc of cuelure and maldison on the wick

1981 - Metropolitan grid reorganised and increased to 2172 traps and also Pt. Augusta 1083 traps; 137 traps installed at Whyalla

1982 - New grids at Ceduna with 34 traps and in a risk area at Bern with 9 traps

1983 - New grid at Port Lincoln (75) and Renmark (22); test of 10 Jackson traps in metropolitan area; improved distribution of metropolitan grid with trap numbers increased to 2280

1985 - Jackson ‘sticky’ traps replaced Steiner traps

1986 - Grid of 341 traps installed in Riverland towns and orchards at 400m grid and 1 per sq km in commercial orchards; addition of 290 traps to southern metropolitan area; Trap numbers in S.A. metropolitan 2604, Port Pirie 80, Port Augusta 92, Whyalla 135, Port Lincoln 64, Ceduna 35, Riverland 345; Total 3355 traps

1991 - Lynfield dry trap replaced the Jackson ‘sticky’ trap for Qfly For both pest species:

1992 — Trapping grid removed from Port Lincoln

1994 - Trap numbers in the State were: metropolitan 2604, Port Pirie 84, Port Augusta 81, Whyalla 120, Ceduna 32, Riverland 343; Total 3264

Male lure and dry traps - Medfly

1948 - Invaginated glass traps with orange rind extract-ammonia as a lure

1950 - Lure changed to vanilla and ammonia

1957 - invaginate glass traps with medlire ENT 21484

1961 - 391 glass traps on 1/2 mile grid in metropolitan area with trimedlure

1962 - Test using ‘dack-pots’ was not successful

1963 - Steiner trap replaced the invaginate glass trap at 1/4 mile grid in metropolitan area, with an attractant of trimedlure and glycerine; tray in the trap contained lindane 20% and chlordane l52

1964 - 1386 traps at a density of 40 per square mile

1965 — Trap numbers in (he State were: metropolitan 1440, Port Augusta 75, Renmark 6, Bern 6, Waikeric 6, l.oxton 6.

1966 - 38 traps at Port Pirie; 7cc of trimedlure on wick

1970 - Israeli traps replace Steiner trap; attractant mixture trimedlure 4000mL, DDVP 93% 40mL with 5cc in each wick

1974 - 1875 traps being serviced

1980 - New grid of 137 traps at Whyalla due to outbreak

1981 - Metropolitan grid reorganised and increased to 2172

1982 - New grid of 34 traps at Ceduna, due to outbreak; 9 traps in a risk area at Bern

1983 - Improved distribution of metropolitan grid with trap numbers increased to 2172; new grid at Port Lincoln (75) and Renmark (22)

1985 - Jackson ‘sticky’ traps replaced Israeli traps

1986 - Capilure® replaced trimedlure; addition of 290 traps to southern metropolitan area; trap numbers in S.A. metropolitan 2604, Port Pirie 89. Port Augusta 92, Whyalla 135, Port Lincoln 64, Ceduna 35, Riverland 345. Total 3355 traps

1992 and 1994 - See above

Bait sprays

1947 - 2oz (56.6g) tartar emetic, 2lb (0.91kg) brown sugar, 4 gals (15.14L) waler 6f1 oz/spot/7days

1948 - DDT 0.1% (2lbs of 5O%wp DDT in 100 gal water); also applied on ground where windfalls were suspected of being infested with larvae; two sprayers operated from each power unit, each with a 250 ft length of hose attached; by 1950, Department had 6 power units

1957 - 0.15% maldison; 0.2% imported yeast hydrolysate; 1 quart (1.4L) Staley protein insect bait No.7, 2lb (0.91kg) maldison 25% WP, sugar, 15.14L (4 gals) water every 7 days

1963 - sugar not added

1965 - 340g (0.4%) protein hydrolysate, 255g (0.35%) maldison 25% WP, in 15.4L (4 gals) water at 150mL/tree

1971 - 283g (10oz) protein hydrolysate. 255g (9oz) maldison 13.6L(3 gals) water at, 1/2 pint tree

1972 - protein-maldison spot, technique seriously examined; 4g (0.14oz) active protein hydrolysate, 1g (0.035oz) active maldison, 100mL (3.5fl oz) water

1974 - baiting failure, as mixture was: 56g actual instead of 620g protein hydrolysate 21%, 70g actual instead of 154g maldison 25% in 13.2L (3.5 gal) water

1974/75 - 1L protein autolysate (420 g/L protein), 142mL maldison 115wv, 16L water at 50 spots/ha, twice weekly in inner area, once in outer area area

1981 - 850mL protein autolysate, 147m1 maldison, 115wv, 16L water

1982 - 1L low salt protein autolysate, 420 g/L protein, 174 mL maldison 115 WV, 18.8L water at 100 spots/ha or 6-8 spots (100mL/spot) each yard

Ground and cover sprays

1947 - Sweetened tartar emetic plus water

1948 - DDT 2lbs of 50%wp, 100 gal (45.6L) water; idea of spraying by air abandoned; arsenical spray for boxthorn

1957 - 0-1/4 mile, DDT every 14 days as cover spray, including winter and spring; 1/4-1 mile, DDT every 21 days; DDT under infested trees; review of use of DDT because of harmful side effects

1962 - 0-1/4 mile, fenthion at 0.0590 as cover spray every 4 weeks including winter; dieldrin under infested trees

1963 - 0-1/4 mile, fenthion first spray 0.08% then 0.04% every 4 weeks

1972 - Cover spraying less acceptable and cards left with householders

1973 - 0-1/4 mile, fenthion every 14 days

1974 - 200 to 400m fenthion at 0.16% for Medfly, 3 applications at 10-day intervals

1980 — Chlordane as ground treatment replaced DDT

1987 - Chlorpyrifos replaced chlordane

Removal of fruit

1947 - 0—1 mile, primary hosts then secondary hosts, summer and winter fruit

1949 - 0—1 mile, commercial growers could remove fruit

1953 - 0-1 mile, commercial growers outside 3/4 mile radius could remove fruit; petition to register gardens not accepted

1957/58 - 0-1 mile, ripe primary hosts, then remainder 2 weeks later

1963 - 0-1/4 mile, primary and secondary hosts; 1/4-1 mile, primary hosts; 0-1 mile, removal of citrus in winter; planting prohibited of host that would fruit before 1st October; planting of tomatoes only by permit

1967 - 0-1/4 mile, host fruit at risk

1971 - Stripping deleted, later resumed to 0-1/8 mile

1975 - Only infested and host trees where infested trees found; for 0-1/8 mile radius, fruit removed if not cover-sprayed (Medfly)

Disposal of fruit

1947 - Fruit to Council incinerator in Halifax Street; bagged fruit dumped at sea 15-20 miles from Glenelg; later, fruit dumped at sea 3 miles from Outer Harbour; green plants burnt at Magill

1948 - Bagged fruit treated with DDT before dumping

1957 - Green plants burnt at Dry Creek, then Wingfield

1957/58 - At Pt. Augusta, fruit placed in holes dug by ETSA at Curlew Point

1967 - Fruit and green plants treated with dieseline and DDT; buried at Tea Tree Gully dump

1975 - Revised program meant little fruit for disposal; fruit treated with maldison, into plastic bags, buried 2 metres deep, under Departmental supervision.

Page Last Reviewed: 20 Nov 2017
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